History essay writing
A paragraph structured this way would contain the following:. One of the main obstacles to reaching international consensus on climate change action is the ongoing debate over which countries should shoulder the burden. Because the developed world has historically been responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions, it has been argued that they should reduce emissions and allow developed nations to prioritise development over environmental concerns Vinuales, Article 3.
However, because CBDR outlines a principle and not an actionable plan it has remained problematic. For example, it does not stipulate the extent to which, under the principle of CBDR, developing nations should be exempt from specific emissions targets. This has continued to be a point of contention in global negotiations on climate change, with developed countries such as the USA arguing that developed nations should do more to reduce emissions Klein et.
Fairness and equity need to be pursued in reaching a global agreement on climate change, but transforming this into an actionable strategy is problematic. The paragraph below was written in response to the essay question: '"Leaders are made rather than born. Provide reasons for your opinion. Skip to content Skip to navigation. What is academic integrity? How can I study with integrity? Test your understanding Find out more Case note assignment Understanding case notes and marker expectations Identifying the elements of a case note Finding materials Analysing materials Better writing Summary Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Health Sciences case report Reflective writing and critical incidents Writing in Psychological Medicine 1.
Case history 2. Mental state examination 3. Physical examination 4.
Summary and diagnosis 5. Bad Analysis In reality these reports - although meticulously conclusive - were exceptionally lengthy and had not been read by the majority of British citizens meaning that it would not be strictly necessary to act on solutions to the conclusions they presented. Evaluation Overall not the main motivating factor The reports existed publicly for several years before the time that the Liberal's were campaigning for election in and yet no mention of social reform was detailed in their manifesto This refutes the claim that the work of these social researchers was their inspiration for change as if this was the case surely this would have been mentioned originally before the election rather than coming to light a significant amount of time afterwards Certainly weaker than motivation of the Liberal's being genuine concern for the poor.
Genuine Concern for the Poor. Knowledge When elected in the Liberal Party were mainly dominated by Old Liberals men who held and were accustomed to Laissez-faire attitudes In the leadership of the Liberal government changed to New Liberals arguably more modern approach motivated by general concern Could have resulted from Liberals being more open to influence from outside sources of solutions to problems such as poverty, for instance the reports of Booth and Rowntree and the introduction of their reform. Good Analysis Some of the reforms for example the Old Age Pension do not appear to have any other explanation.
Elderly people are not a source of long lasting or continuing votes for the Liberal party as a result of introducing the pension, taking care of them did not benefit Britain in terms of improving the economy or security of Britain as they were no longer workers or indeed soldiers. This shows that the Liberals actions in some cases only seem to be explained by sincere and specific concerns they hoped to introduce solutions for.
Bad Analysis Some historians argue that Churchill an important and unquestionably influential member of the Liberal party at this point in time worked in accordance with other priorities. Specifically, concerns for holding back the growth of socialism and protecting the greatness of the British empire through attempting to improve National efficiency and security and that these are the origins of the reforms.
Evaluation Overall this is the main motivating factor This is primarily due to the fact that some of the reforms significantly damaged the Liberal's chances of being re-elected at the subsequent election as the reaction to the taxes they inflicted on the upper and working classes in order to fuel the needed funding for the reforms lost support for them but went ahead anyway. Concerns for National Efficiency and Security. Good Analysis Many of the reforms follow examples already being implemented in Germany by the late 's Lloyd George was a very influential member of the Liberal party and had recently seen these first hand This means the Liberal reforms are a direct example of a previously witnessed solution attempt to this specific problem.
Bad Analysis All of this evidence did freely exist before the time when the Liberals were campaigning for election so if this is the key motivation for social reform being implemented then it makes no sense that social reform aimed against poverty was not even merely mentioned in their manifesto. Evaluation Overall this was not the main motivation Old Age pension was the hardest reform for the Liberals to introduce due to the extreme financial requirements its implementation came with and this reform had absolutely nothing to do with improving national efficiency and security This motivation is not as strong as the argument that the Liberals had genuine concern for the poor Genuine concern would account for going to such an extreme financial extent to care for elderly people suffering in poverty.
Political Motivation. Knowledge The Liberals faced several key threats, two of which were presented by competing political parties The first threat was from Labour based on their growing desire and ability to offer working and lower class citizens the representation they so aptly desired in parliament, particularly due to the fact that by most working class men had the vote which emphasises how crucial catering to thier needs is for any party that wishes to be re-elected or indeed elected in the first place Although, it must be noted at this point in time the Labour party were simply beginning to rise, only holding 29 seats in parliament in A second threat facing the Liberals was from the Conservatives based on the liklihood of them returning to power after the subsequent election if the Liberals were not successful.
Good Analysis The Conservative party which had been in power prior to the Liberals being elected in had implemented some limited social reform - this made it evident that if the Liberal party was not willing to cater to the public in this way then they were. This being the case social reform seems like the most logical step for the Liberals to implement further if tey desired re-election.
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Bad Analysis However, if this survival of the fittest approach was what motivated the Liberals to such a dramatic change then surely they would have simply worked alone. The Liberals are known to have worked with the Labour party on more than one occasion, refuting the concept that Labour was an influential enough threat at the time that it could have been the reason.
Evaluation Not the main motivation The Liberals knowingly lost votes from the upper and middle classes which they had taxed through the implementation of several reforms, driving their support into the hands of the Conservatives. Weaker than the argument for genuine concern for the poor This is because the only explanation that seems valid in comparison to the problems found with other potential motivations is that the Liberals simply believed that implenting these reforms was the right thing to do and that they accepted that doing this would cost them. Introduction When the Liberals came to power in their manifesto was primarily tailored to improving Britain's economic circumstances without any even mere mention of social reform Nevertheless, between and the Liberals introduced what was at the time the most influential program of social reform that had ever been implemented in Britain There is much historical debate discussing what exactly motivated this dramatic change in direction - Signposting Arguable possible motivations include: influence from existing reports on the extent of British poverty published by social researchers Booth and Rowntree, having genuine concern for the poor, concerns for National Sufficiency and Security, and lastly political motivation based on increasing their own chances of remaining in power after the subsequent election - L.
A It will be the purpose of this essay to argue that it was in fact genuine concern for the poor which motivated the Liberals to re-direct their attention towards implementing social reform rather than debatably weaker alternatives such as influence from the work of Booth and Rowntree.
Conclusion - Summary There are several arguable motivations such as influence from at the time current reports on poverty or aims to improve National efficiency and security for the Liberals turning to social reform, though many of them lose their strong stance when it is pointed out that despite their previous existence social reform was not mentioned on the Liberal's manifesto during their campaign. The main factor also does not appear to be political motivation as this change in direction eventually damaged the overall public view of the Liberal party.
Labor Effectiveness. Knowledge Intro sentence: Lastly, Labour also turned their attention to attempting to tackle the problem of idleness - i.
British citizens at this point in time were terrified of suffering through another great depression after the chronic unemployment of the 's However, by unemployment rate stood at only 2. Good Analysis Keeping the unemployment rate at this historic low is seen by many as an impressive achievement The fact that they followed several policies with this deliberate intention earned public respect. Bad Analysis They actually inherited a situation where there was going to be low unemployment despite their efforts since participation in the war had left Britain in a state which required a huge amount of clean up and repair This naturally created employment opportunities without Labour having to become directly involved.
Evaluation Overall, not the most successful reform brought in by the post-war Labour government It is a false perception that low unemployment was a result of Labour's success Certainly weaker than that aimed at tackling disease in Britain Much in contrast, the NHS was founded at the time that Labour was in power meaning that its success can be traced back to something they are responsible for.
Knowledge Intro sentence: An area that was previously neglected by the Liberals when they were in power between and was regard for general public health Implemented social reform in order to tackle this area - through Beveridge's assessment became known as the giant of disease Bevan the health minister at the time created National Health Service Originally hoped to be comprehensive and able to treat all problems - paid for through taxation, free at the time that assistance was needed At the time that the NHS was first founded countless doctors opposed to working for the service - resented the loss of private practices This issue was addressed by Bevan - made working for the NHS financially attractive and turned many in his favour.
Good Analysis When the system officially became available to the public hundreds of British citizens attended doctor's surgeries in order to have an incomprehensible variety of illnesses treated This clearly means that it is logical to infer that the NHS was an entirely necessary system of social reform that was from the beginning very positively received and remains so to this day. Evaluation Overall, is the most successful reform brought in by the post-war Labour government Although critics may argue that having its founding principles broken should brand the project as a failure it must be taken into consideration that this is the reform which helped the greatest number of British people over the longest period of time.
Good Analysis Bevan stayed true to his promise, each house produced by Labour was of exceptionally high quality, so much so that many of them remain standing to this day Exceptional achievement when noted that the man in charge was also running the NHS - heavy responsibility but standards remained high - building reputation. Evaluation Overall, not the most successful reform brought in by the post-war labour government Mainly because they were unable to build anywhere near the amount of houses that were required with only 1 million out of a promised 5 million council houses being built in the end Certainly not as strong as the Labour reforms aimed at tackling the problem of disease in Britain NHS had a far more widespread beneficial impact on British citizens that the council house building scheme did.
This can be shown when it is noted that in the first year the NHS sold 5 million pairs of glasses and treated 8 million dental patients. Knowledge Intro sentence: Another key problem that the post-war Labour government brought in social reform in attempt to resolve was the problem of poverty in Britain, referred to by Beveridge in his well-known evaluative report as the giant of want.
Expository Essays // Purdue Writing Lab
Previous efforts by Liberals had not minimised British poverty anywhere near the desired extent, still a prominent problem Problem exposed to all when children from inner cities evacuated to the countryside , allowing poor health and few possessions to be witnessed by those otherwise sheltered from their suffering Labour brought inupdated National Insurance Act in , extended the system to include all working adults rather than merely those in specific industries Compulsory and provided applicants with benefits for sickness, unemployment, maternity, widow's allowance, guardians allowance, retirement pensions and a death grant Benefits set at 26 shillings for a single adult and 42 shillings for a couple.
Good Analysis National Insurance scheme now universal Holes revealed in the updated system dealt with through the National Assistance Act in to catch those who fell Shows that Labour government is willing to work to repair areas that weren't working - builds respect for work ethic. Bad Analysis Serious problem limiting success - benefit levels set and fixed for 5 subsequent years By when the bill became law price of goods had dramatically risen due to post-war economic inflation Meaning money now set to be provided would not be capable of going as far as it now had to.